Bugun...



HOW THE MİLİTARY PLANS TO STOP 'CİVİL DİSTURBANCES' AMİD COVID-19 PANDEMİC

With the National Guard now active in 22 states and governors continuing to declare more severe emergency measures daily, the U.S. military is preparing forces to assume a larger role in the coronavirus response.

facebook-paylas
Güncelleme: 21-03-2020 15:50:44 Tarih: 20-03-2020 22:30

HOW THE MİLİTARY PLANS TO STOP 'CİVİL DİSTURBANCES' AMİD COVID-19 PANDEMİC

 
With the National Guard now active in 22 states and governors continuing to declare more severe emergency measures daily, the U.S. military is preparing forces to assume a larger role in the coronavirus response, including the controversial mission of quelling "civil disturbances" and enforcing the law, a mission that the military has not engaged in for almost 30 years.
 
Within military circles, opinion is split over whether federal forces should muscle their way in to do more. State governors and their respective National Guard units, not the federal government and the active duty military, are primarily responsible for handling domestic emergencies: that's the law and it's also common sense, since local officials are always closer to a crisis and generally more familiar with the people affected.
 
The civil disturbance mission requires a deft hand that men and women who have been in battle might not have, and some question whether soldiers are trained or appropriate. The Pentagon contingency plan for dealing with civil disturbances also does not anticipate any scenario like coronavirus, where widespread deployment would thrust more responsibility into the hands of low-level commanders on the scene. There, military insiders say, the policies governing when federal troops can intervene and when they can use force are skewed towards absolutes more appropriate for a foreign battlefield.
 
Acknowledging that the most difficult question ahead is what role the military will play in keeping order in America, on Thursday Air Force Gen. Joseph Lengyel, head of the National Guard Bureau, cautioned against federalizing the state-based National Guard, which would rob them of their unique legal authorities to conduct law enforcement missions.
 
Though Lengyel says there have been no requests yet to use the National Guard for law enforcement, he made an argument that the states keep "decisions at their level," out of federal hands, touting the 450,000 strong National Guard as "ready when their governors call."
 
But planners involved at the Pentagon and U.S. Northern Command, while admitting that the National Guard is the best choice if there is a public breakdown, also say that the Guard may not be able to be relied upon, not just because of the scope of need, but also because it is a citizen force spread out across America and thus as susceptible as the rest of the general population to contracting the virus.
A senior military planner working on coronavirus but not authorized to speak on sensitive planning matters says that deployment of federal troops in support roles is being prepared. This week, the Pentagon allocated two Navy hospital ships to coronavirus duty, one in New York and the other in California. Other logistics and engineering missions are also being prepared, those support missions partially intended to free up National Guard troops so that they can conduct law enforcement if necessary, with the active duty forces operating in the background.
But once military forces are dispersed off bases in America, the senior planner says, they will have to contend with "force protection" and will be thrust into difficult general law enforcement roles, particularly as shelter-in-place and other quarantine situations escalate.
Rumors of a nationwide lockdown spread through social media this week, and Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden said he would mobilize military forces "now" to respond to coronavirus. And while tamping down fear of martial law, California Gov. Gavin Newsom said that though it wasn't called for or necessary, "If you want to establish a framework of martial law, which is ultimate authority and enforcement, we have the capacity to do that."
 
"Martial law involves use of the military to exercise police powers; restore and maintain order; ensure essential mechanics of distribution, transportation and communication; and conduct necessary relief measures," an Army manual published last July says. The doctrine, however, is contradictory on the question of who can order martial law. In one place it says that only the president may order federal military forces to impose martial law, and on another page it says, "other officials may be authorized to impose martial law within a particular state under that state's law."
 
In either case, the doctrine says, "federal military commanders shall not take charge of any function of civil government unless necessary under conditions of extreme emergency." And it states that "Any commander who is directed, or who undertakes, to control such functions shall strictly limit military actions to the emergency needs and shall facilitate the reestablishment of civil responsibility at the earliest time possible."
 
When asked to comment, a former commander of NORTHCOM (U.S. Northern Command) told Newsweek: "It's unfortunate that talk of defense support of civil authorities, civil disturbance operations, and martial law are contained in the same documents. We certainly don't want to muddy the waters by suggesting that martial law is easy or a continuum. Even making the basic decision to enforce the law is momentous."
 
U.S. Northern Command, located in Colorado Springs, wrote its first contingency plan specifically for "Civil Disturbance Operations," called CONPLAN 3502, in 2007. The classified plan, hundreds of pages long, describes a broad set of tasks where military forces could be called to assist civil authorities in response to civil disturbances. These include "riots, acts of violence, insurrections, unlawful obstructions or assemblages, group acts of violence, and disorders prejudicial to public law and order," according to one study. Though the plan includes a broad listing of conditions where federal forces might be used, it also assumes a single location or region, and it posits a maximum force—the "Level 3" force—of an Army Corps of some 20,000-36,000 personnel.
 
"NORTHCOM was specifically directed to be ready to respond to 'requests for assistance' from states and local authorities in June 2018," the senior planner says, "but none of the contingency planning mention a pandemic of this size or ever anticipated that a nationwide deployment might occur."
 
What would trigger the use of force in "civil disturbance operations" derives mostly from the experience of Hurricane Katrina. During the response in New Orleans, Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco refused Bush administration insistence that she accede to federalizing her Guard forces, fearing that she would lose control. Though President George W. Bush could have invoked the law to force federalization and authorize Army troops to enforce the law given the nature of the emergency, the White House backed down, deploying forces but not with any police powers.
 
The use of federal military forces in the enforcement of the law—as a posse comitatus or a group summoned by the local sheriff—has long been prohibited unless it is otherwise authorized by specific laws passed by Congress. In CONPLAN 3502, there are references to three exceptions: the use of the military in the war on drugs; in "extraordinary circumstances" involving weapons of mass destruction; and a third, in the Enforcement of the Laws to Restore Public Order Act, also confusingly known as The Insurrection Act. According to NORTHCOM, federal troops could be used to enforce the law in cases when "rebellion against the authority of the U.S. makes it impracticable to enforce the laws of the U.S. by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings".
 
Under the Insurrection Act, CONPLAN 3502 says, if violence cannot be brought under control by state and local law enforcement agencies and the State National Guard, the president may use the National Guard (called into federal service), the reserves (when called to active duty), and members of the Armed Forces to enforce federal laws or to suppress an insurrection.
The president may use the Armed Forces or the federalized National Guard, the plan says, to make arrests, conduct searches and perform other traditional law enforcement functions if needed to suppress any insurrection, domestic violence, unlawful combination, or conspiracy. The conditions are not unlimited, as even there, under the Insurrection act, the use of federal military forces is supposed to be justified only if civil violence or disruption "so hinders the execution of State and Federal law that people are deprived of their rights secured by the Constitution and laws."
 
These conditions—the enforcement of federal law—don't apply to the current situation, the senior planner says. The president can determine that the situation exceeds either the capabilities "or willingness" of local authorities to restore law and order, he says, but the very language, the inclusion of the "willingness" clause, shows how much the contingency planning is still written for yesterday's crises and not applicable to coronavirus. Willingness was included, the planner says, because of the legacy of troops being used in enforcement of civil rights, the imposition of federal forces often at odds with the wishes of state and local officials.
 
In response to Hurricane Katrina and to take into consideration broader circumstances that might force the federal military to enforce the law, Congress enacted significant changes to the Insurrection Act in October 2006, broadening the president's ability to employ the armed forces domestically without state request or consent. That change added "as a result of a natural disaster, epidemic, or other serious public health emergency, terrorist attack or incident, or other condition in any State" whenever the president determined that "domestic violence has occurred to such an extent that the constituted authorities of the State or possession are incapable of maintaining public order."
 
The changes were met by widespread resistance from state governors and the following year, Congress repealed the change, reverting to previous language. CONPLAN 3502 was modified in 2009 to reflect the original language of the Insurrection Act, adding instead provisions for use of federal forces to enforce the law in response to public health emergencies, but at the same time placing more onus on local commanders.
 
If federal forces are called upon to enforce the law, the senior planner says, a lot more responsibility will be put on the shoulders of low level commanders on the scene. As it stands today, if they face a breakdown of civil authority or outright violence against themselves, CONPLAN 3502 isn't much help.
 
"The commander's decision to take action must always be based on necessity rather than convenience to either the military commander or civil authorities," Army doctrine written last July states. The doctrine says that under "rare circumstances, a commander may take prompt action, including direct law enforcement duties, as the circumstances reasonably justify."
 
Another Pentagon directive issued in February 2019 instructs commanders "to engage temporarily in activities that are necessary to quell large-scale, unexpected civil disturbances" even if they have no prior authorization to do so. Commanders can enforce the law, the directive says, when "necessary to prevent significant loss of life or wanton destruction of property [and] to restore ... public order."
 
And still another Pentagon directive, issued a month later in March 2019 and dealing with public health emergencies, authorizes military commanders to impose "quarantine, isolation, and conditional release" and says those who violate such orders may face fines or imprisonment. "Those individuals or groups not subject to military law and who refuse to obey or otherwise violate an order issued in accordance with this issuance may be detained by the military commander until appropriate civil authorities can respond," the directive says.
 
"Yes, military commanders have the right of self-defense," the former NORTHCOM commander says, upon reading these new doctrines and directives, "and they can obviously take action in an emergency, but maybe it's still not appropriate on the streets of America."
 
The senior planner agrees, saying that it is incumbent on the Pentagon to provide specific orders and rules of engagement for coronavirus.
 
"I'm just not sure that our troops, as good as they are, can be ready for something as widespread and explosive as COVID-19," the planner says. At the same time, he worries that the presence of uniformed personnel on the streets of America, rather than providing a comforting presence will instead signal the use of federal force and martial law—just making the situation worse.
 
newsweek



Bu haber 454 defa okunmuştur.


Etiketler :

FACEBOOK YORUM
Yorum

İLGİNİZİ ÇEKEBİLECEK DİĞER ENGLISH NEWS Haberleri

YAZARLAR

EN GÜVENDİĞİNİZ SİYASETÇİ KİM?


HABER ARA
HABER ARŞİVİ
resmi ilanlar
HAVA DURUMU
nöbetçi eczaneler
PUAN DURUMU
Takım O G M B A Y P AV
1 Trabzonspor 26 15 3 8 59 28 53 +31
2 Başakşehir FK 26 15 3 8 50 25 53 +25
3 Galatasaray 26 14 4 8 44 20 50 +24
4 Sivasspor 26 14 5 7 47 29 49 +18
5 Beşiktaş 26 13 8 5 40 32 44 +8
6 Alanyaspor 26 12 7 7 44 25 43 +19
7 Fenerbahçe 26 11 8 7 46 34 40 +12
8 Göztepe 26 10 9 7 31 30 37 +1
9 Gaziantep FK 26 8 10 8 36 41 32 -5
10 Denizlispor 26 8 11 7 26 34 31 -8
11 Antalyaspor 26 7 10 9 29 43 30 -14
12 Gençlerbirliği 26 7 12 7 33 44 28 -11
13 Kasımpaşa 26 7 14 5 38 50 26 -12
14 Konyaspor 26 5 10 11 21 33 26 -12
15 Yeni Malatyaspor 26 6 13 7 38 40 25 -2
16 Çaykur Rizespor 26 7 15 4 26 44 25 -18
17 MKE Ankaragücü 26 5 13 8 23 45 23 -22
18 Kayserispor 26 5 14 7 28 62 22 -34
Takım O G M B A Y P AV
1 Hatayspor 28 15 5 8 38 23 53 +15
2 BB Erzurumspor 28 13 7 8 30 22 47 +8
3 Bursaspor 28 14 7 7 43 35 46 +8
4 Adana Demirspor 28 12 7 9 55 35 45 +20
5 Akhisarspor 28 12 7 9 36 31 45 +5
6 Fatih Karagümrük 28 11 7 10 40 34 43 +6
7 Altay 28 11 7 10 36 30 43 +6
8 Ümraniyespor 28 11 10 7 39 39 40 0
9 Giresunspor 27 10 9 8 30 33 38 -3
10 Keçiörengücü 28 8 9 11 21 22 35 -1
11 Balıkesirspor 28 8 9 11 30 33 35 -3
12 Menemenspor 28 9 11 8 32 38 35 -6
13 İstanbulspor 27 7 8 12 38 34 33 +4
14 Altınordu 28 7 11 10 32 39 31 -7
15 Boluspor 28 4 11 13 24 36 25 -12
16 Osmanlıspor FK 28 6 13 9 32 42 24 -10
17 Adanaspor 28 3 14 11 26 42 20 -16
18 Eskişehirspor 28 7 16 5 32 46 17 -14
Takım O G M B A Y P AV
1 Samsunspor 28 23 1 4 64 11 73 +53
2 Manisa FK 28 19 3 6 79 31 63 +48
3 Hekimoğlu Trabzon 28 17 7 4 51 34 55 +17
4 Sancaktepe FK 28 16 8 4 51 23 52 +28
5 İnegölspor 28 13 9 6 41 30 45 +11
6 Afjet Afyonspor 28 13 11 4 47 30 43 +17
7 Tarsus İdman Yurdu 28 14 13 1 45 39 43 +6
8 Pendikspor 28 11 10 7 40 39 40 +1
9 Sarıyer 28 11 10 7 34 33 40 +1
10 Zonguldak Kömürspor 28 9 10 9 35 37 36 -2
11 Çorum FK 28 11 14 3 36 42 36 -6
12 Hacettepe Spor 28 11 15 2 37 48 35 -11
13 1922 Konyaspor 28 9 13 6 38 45 33 -7
14 Kırklarelispor 28 8 11 9 25 41 33 -16
15 Başkent Akademi FK 28 9 15 4 37 41 31 -4
16 Amed Sportif 28 7 14 7 28 46 28 -18
17 Gümüşhanespor 28 7 17 4 31 57 25 -26
18 Şanlıurfaspor 28 0 27 1 10 102 14 -92
Takım O G M B A Y P AV
1 Serik Belediyespor 28 16 5 7 49 24 55 +25
2 24Erzincanspor 28 14 4 10 47 22 52 +25
3 68 Aksaray Belediyespor 28 14 6 8 43 27 50 +16
4 1928 Bucaspor 28 14 7 7 47 34 49 +13
5 Artvin Hopaspor 28 12 5 11 38 21 47 +17
6 Düzcespor 28 12 6 10 32 18 46 +14
7 Karaköprü Belediyespor 28 10 6 12 25 22 42 +3
8 Çatalcaspor 28 9 5 14 39 28 41 +11
9 Silivrispor 28 8 6 14 37 31 38 +6
10 Sultanbeyli Bld. 28 9 8 11 33 27 38 +6
11 Kızılcabölükspor 28 8 8 12 39 37 36 +2
12 Yomraspor 28 9 10 9 28 30 36 -2
13 52 Orduspor FK 28 7 7 14 21 20 35 +1
14 Çankaya FK 28 9 12 7 33 37 34 -4
15 Şile Yıldızspor 28 6 11 11 23 30 29 -7
16 Erzin Spor Kulübü 28 6 12 10 27 34 28 -7
17 Tokatspor 28 1 23 4 16 66 7 -50
18 Manisaspor 28 1 24 3 16 85 0 -69
Tarih Ev Sahibi Sonuç Konuk Takım
 12/04/2020 Başakşehir FK vs Galatasaray
 12/04/2020 Beşiktaş vs Konyaspor
 12/04/2020 Çaykur Rizespor vs Denizlispor
 12/04/2020 Fenerbahçe vs Yeni Malatyaspor
 12/04/2020 Gaziantep FK vs Antalyaspor
 12/04/2020 Gençlerbirliği vs Kasımpaşa
 12/04/2020 Göztepe vs Alanyaspor
 12/04/2020 Sivasspor vs Kayserispor
 12/04/2020 Trabzonspor vs MKE Ankaragücü
 12/04/2020 Başakşehir FK - Galatasaray Galatasaray ligdeki son 10 maçında hiç kaybetmedi  Galatasaray yenilmez
Tarih Ev Sahibi Sonuç Konuk Takım
 16/03/2020 Eskişehirspor 1 - 4 Adana Demirspor
 16/03/2020 Altınordu 1 - 1 Balıkesirspor
 15/03/2020 Osmanlıspor FK 1 - 1 Giresunspor
 15/03/2020 Akhisarspor 0 - 0 BB Erzurumspor
 15/03/2020 Adanaspor 1 - 1 Keçiörengücü
 15/03/2020 Menemenspor 2 - 2 İstanbulspor
 15/03/2020 Hatayspor 2 - 0 Ümraniyespor
 14/03/2020 Bursaspor 1 - 1 Boluspor
 14/03/2020 Fatih Karagümrük 2 - 2 Altay
 12/04/2020 Ümraniyespor - Eskişehirspor Eskişehirspor ligdeki son 7 maçında hiç kazanamadı  Ümraniyespor yenilmez
Tarih Ev Sahibi Sonuç Konuk Takım
 22/03/2020 Elazığspor 0 - 0 Ankara Demirspor
 18/03/2020 Van Spor 2 - 1 Ergene Velimeşe
 15/03/2020 Bodrumspor 0 - 1 Bandırmaspor
 15/03/2020 Kardemir Karabükspor 0 - 1 Niğde Anadolu FK
 15/03/2020 Ergene Velimeşe 0 - 3 Tuzlaspor
 15/03/2020 Van Spor 0 - 1 Sakaryaspor
 15/03/2020 Sivas Belediyespor 0 - 3 Kastamonuspor
 15/03/2020 Kahramanmaraşspor 0 - 1 Kırşehir Belediyespor
 15/03/2020 Uşak Spor 3 - 0 Elazığspor
Tarih Ev Sahibi Sonuç Konuk Takım
 18/03/2020 Artvin Hopaspor 0 - 1 Sultanbeyli Bld.
 18/03/2020 Yomraspor 1 - 0 Serik Belediyespor
 15/03/2020 Kızılcabölükspor 1 - 0 Erzin Spor
 15/03/2020 Manisaspor 0 - 4 68 Aksaray Belediyespor
 15/03/2020 Serik Belediyespor 0 - 0 Düzcespor
 15/03/2020 Sultanbeyli Bld. 2 - 2 Silivrispor
 15/03/2020 Çatalcaspor 1 - 1 24Erzincanspor
 15/03/2020 Tokatspor 1 - 2 1928 Bucaspor
 15/03/2020 Artvin Hopaspor 2 - 1 Çankaya FK
ÇOK OKUNAN HABERLER
  • BUGÜN
  • BU HAFTA
  • BU AY
65 Okunma
58 Okunma
44 Okunma
43 Okunma
40 Okunma
40 Okunma
35 Okunma
35 Okunma
31 Okunma
28 Okunma
28 Okunma
26 Okunma
26 Okunma
25 Okunma
25 Okunma
24 Okunma
23 Okunma
22 Okunma
272 Okunma
199 Okunma
164 Okunma
136 Okunma
105 Okunma
102 Okunma
100 Okunma
94 Okunma
91 Okunma
82 Okunma
72 Okunma
69 Okunma
65 Okunma
65 Okunma
62 Okunma
62 Okunma
60 Okunma
59 Okunma
58 Okunma
58 Okunma
57 Okunma
56 Okunma
55 Okunma
54 Okunma
54 Okunma
54 Okunma
53 Okunma
52 Okunma
51 Okunma
50 Okunma
50 Okunma
2230 Okunma
819 Okunma
479 Okunma
455 Okunma
436 Okunma
430 Okunma
407 Okunma
401 Okunma
395 Okunma
370 Okunma
328 Okunma
293 Okunma
287 Okunma
278 Okunma
275 Okunma
272 Okunma
271 Okunma
259 Okunma
249 Okunma
239 Okunma
235 Okunma
230 Okunma
228 Okunma
217 Okunma
199 Okunma
196 Okunma
184 Okunma
175 Okunma
166 Okunma
164 Okunma
162 Okunma
SON YORUMLANANLAR
  • HABERLER
  • VİDEOLAR
YUKARI YUKARI