Bugun...



DNA SLEUTHS READ THE CORONAVİRUS GENOME, TRACİNG İTS ORİGİNS AND LOOKİNG FOR DANGEROUS MUTATİONS

As infectious disease specialists and epidemiologists race to contain the outbreak of the novel coronavirus centered on Wuhan, China, they’re getting backup that’s been possible only since the explosion in genetic technologies: a deep-dive into the genome of the virus known as 2019-nCoV.

facebook-paylas
Güncelleme: 06-02-2020 14:26:44 Tarih: 05-02-2020 22:41

DNA SLEUTHS READ THE CORONAVİRUS GENOME, TRACİNG İTS ORİGİNS AND LOOKİNG FOR DANGEROUS MUTATİONS

Analyses of the viral genome are already providing clues to the origins of the outbreak and even possible ways to treat the infection, a need that is becoming more urgent by the day: Early on Saturday in China, health officials reported 15 new fatalities in a single day, bringing the death toll to 41. There are now nearly 1,100 confirmed cases there.

Reading the genome (which is made of RNA, not DNA) also allows researchers to monitor how 2019-nCoV is changing and provides a roadmap for developing a diagnostic test and a vaccine

As infectious disease specialists and epidemiologists race to contain the outbreak of the novel coronavirus centered on Wuhan, China, they’re getting backup that’s been possible only since the explosion in genetic technologies: a deep-dive into the genome of the virus known as 2019-nCoV.

Analyses of the viral genome are already providing clues to the origins of the outbreak and even possible ways to treat the infection, a need that is becoming more urgent by the day: Early on Saturday in China, health officials reported 15 new fatalities in a single day, bringing the death toll to 41. There are now nearly 1,100 confirmed cases there.

Reading the genome (which is made of RNA, not DNA) also allows researchers to monitor how 2019-nCoV is changing and provides a roadmap for developing a diagnostic test and a vaccine

Since the sequencing of the first 2019-nCoV sample, from an early patient, scientists have completed nearly two dozen more, said Andrew Rambaut of the University of Edinburgh, an expert on viral evolution. That pace is “unprecedented and completely unbelievable,” said Andersen, who worked on sequencing the Ebola genome during the 2014 outbreak. “It’s just insane.”

The genome of the Wuhan virus is 29,903 bases long, one of many clues that have led scientists to believe it is very similar to SARS.

By comparing the two dozen genomes, scientists can address the “when did this start” question. The 24 available samples, including from Thailand and Shenzhen as well as Wuhan, show “very limited genetic variation,” Rambaut concluded on an online discussion forum where virologists have been sharing data and analyses. “This is indicative of a relatively recent common ancestor for all these viruses.”

Given what’s known about the pace at which viral genomes mutate, if nCoV had been circulating in humans since significantly before the first case was reported on Dec. 8, the 24 genomes would differ more. Applying ballpark rates of viral evolution, Rambaut estimates that the Adam (or Eve) virus from which all others are descended first appeared no earlier than Oct. 30, 2019, and no later than Nov. 29.

The progenitor virus itself was almost certainly one that circulates harmlessly in bats (as SARS does) but has an “intermediate reservoir” in one or more animals that come into contact with people, Andersen said. Presumably, that reservoir is one of the species of animals at the Wuhan market thought to be ground zero for the outbreak. The ancestor of 2019-nCoV existed in that species for some unknown time, never infecting people, until by chance a single virus acquired a mutation that made it capable of jumping into and infecting humans.

The genome sequences suggest that was a one-time-only jump. “The genomes [from the 24 samples] are very uniform,” Andersen said. “If there had been multiple introductions,” including from many different animals, “there would be more genomic diversity. This was a single introduction.”

That means that what’s sustaining the spread is human-to-human transmission (suggesting that closing Wuhan’s animal market is very much an after-the-horse-has-fled-the-barn reaction).

Unfortunately, genetic analysis can’t identify what animal species the coronavirus jumped from into humans. But an analysis by a team from the Wuhan Institute of Virology, posted to the preprint server bioRxiv, determined that the genome of this coronavirus (the seventh known to infect humans) is 96% identical to that of a bat coronavirus, suggesting that species is the original source. (Writing in the New England Journal of Medicine on Friday, another team of scientists in China reported that the new coronavirus is 86.9% identical to the bat SARS-like coronavirus.)

Virologists differ on whether it’s possible to read out viral properties from just the genome sequence, such as whether the microbe is spread by coughing, sneezing, touching, or merely breathing. But the analysis by the Wuhan Institute team found that it enters human cells using the same doorway that SARS did. Called angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the door is a receptor to which a “spike protein” on the virus’s surface first attaches and then enables the virus to fuse with the host cell.

If ACE2 is “druggable,” blocking it could conceivably treat 2019-nCoV. “It should be expected and worth to test if ACE2 targeting … drugs can be used for nCoV-2019 patients,” the scientists wrote.

The genome sequences have more to give. They “will be crucially important for development of diagnostics [and] vaccines,” said biologist Richard Ebright of Rutgers University.

 

For instance, the genome-editing technology CRISPR is the basis for Cambridge, Mass.-based startup Sherlock Biosciences’ diagnostics, which promise to slash how long it takes to make a definitive identification. In the U.S, that’s now done only by sending samples to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which uses a technology invented in the 1980s, polymerase chain reaction or PCR, to identify the presence of coronavirus.

“Our vision is that our [CRISPR-based] SHERLOCK and INSPECTR platforms are tailor-made for outbreaks like coronavirus,” said Sherlock CEO Rahul Dhanda, who declined to discuss “specific plans related to coronavirus.”

And as scientists keep adding 2019-nCoV genome sequences to their collection, they could get an early glimpse of whether the virus is mutating in a way that could make it more dangerous or more transmissible. “You need continuous sequencing,” Andersen said.

Correction: This story has been corrected to make clear that the coronavirus genome is made of RNA, not DNA.

statnews




Bu haber 520 defa okunmuştur.


Etiketler :

FACEBOOK YORUM
Yorum

İLGİNİZİ ÇEKEBİLECEK DİĞER ENGLISH NEWS Haberleri

YAZARLAR

EN GÜVENDİĞİNİZ SİYASETÇİ KİM?


HABER ARA
HABER ARŞİVİ
resmi ilanlar
HAVA DURUMU
nöbetçi eczaneler
PUAN DURUMU
Takım O G M B A Y P AV
1 Trabzonspor 26 15 3 8 59 28 53 +31
2 Başakşehir FK 26 15 3 8 50 25 53 +25
3 Galatasaray 26 14 4 8 44 20 50 +24
4 Sivasspor 26 14 5 7 47 29 49 +18
5 Beşiktaş 26 13 8 5 40 32 44 +8
6 Alanyaspor 26 12 7 7 44 25 43 +19
7 Fenerbahçe 26 11 8 7 46 34 40 +12
8 Göztepe 26 10 9 7 31 30 37 +1
9 Gaziantep FK 26 8 10 8 36 41 32 -5
10 Denizlispor 26 8 11 7 26 34 31 -8
11 Antalyaspor 26 7 10 9 29 43 30 -14
12 Gençlerbirliği 26 7 12 7 33 44 28 -11
13 Kasımpaşa 26 7 14 5 38 50 26 -12
14 Konyaspor 26 5 10 11 21 33 26 -12
15 Yeni Malatyaspor 26 6 13 7 38 40 25 -2
16 Çaykur Rizespor 26 7 15 4 26 44 25 -18
17 MKE Ankaragücü 26 5 13 8 23 45 23 -22
18 Kayserispor 26 5 14 7 28 62 22 -34
Takım O G M B A Y P AV
1 Hatayspor 28 15 5 8 38 23 53 +15
2 BB Erzurumspor 28 13 7 8 30 22 47 +8
3 Bursaspor 28 14 7 7 43 35 46 +8
4 Adana Demirspor 28 12 7 9 55 35 45 +20
5 Akhisarspor 28 12 7 9 36 31 45 +5
6 Fatih Karagümrük 28 11 7 10 40 34 43 +6
7 Altay 28 11 7 10 36 30 43 +6
8 Ümraniyespor 28 11 10 7 39 39 40 0
9 Giresunspor 27 10 9 8 30 33 38 -3
10 Keçiörengücü 28 8 9 11 21 22 35 -1
11 Balıkesirspor 28 8 9 11 30 33 35 -3
12 Menemenspor 28 9 11 8 32 38 35 -6
13 İstanbulspor 27 7 8 12 38 34 33 +4
14 Altınordu 28 7 11 10 32 39 31 -7
15 Boluspor 28 4 11 13 24 36 25 -12
16 Osmanlıspor FK 28 6 13 9 32 42 24 -10
17 Adanaspor 28 3 14 11 26 42 20 -16
18 Eskişehirspor 28 7 16 5 32 46 17 -14
Takım O G M B A Y P AV
1 Samsunspor 28 23 1 4 64 11 73 +53
2 Manisa FK 28 19 3 6 79 31 63 +48
3 Hekimoğlu Trabzon 28 17 7 4 51 34 55 +17
4 Sancaktepe FK 28 16 8 4 51 23 52 +28
5 İnegölspor 28 13 9 6 41 30 45 +11
6 Afjet Afyonspor 28 13 11 4 47 30 43 +17
7 Tarsus İdman Yurdu 28 14 13 1 45 39 43 +6
8 Pendikspor 28 11 10 7 40 39 40 +1
9 Sarıyer 28 11 10 7 34 33 40 +1
10 Zonguldak Kömürspor 28 9 10 9 35 37 36 -2
11 Çorum FK 28 11 14 3 36 42 36 -6
12 Hacettepe Spor 28 11 15 2 37 48 35 -11
13 1922 Konyaspor 28 9 13 6 38 45 33 -7
14 Kırklarelispor 28 8 11 9 25 41 33 -16
15 Başkent Akademi FK 28 9 15 4 37 41 31 -4
16 Amed Sportif 28 7 14 7 28 46 28 -18
17 Gümüşhanespor 28 7 17 4 31 57 25 -26
18 Şanlıurfaspor 28 0 27 1 10 102 14 -92
Takım O G M B A Y P AV
1 Serik Belediyespor 28 16 5 7 49 24 55 +25
2 24Erzincanspor 28 14 4 10 47 22 52 +25
3 68 Aksaray Belediyespor 28 14 6 8 43 27 50 +16
4 1928 Bucaspor 28 14 7 7 47 34 49 +13
5 Artvin Hopaspor 28 12 5 11 38 21 47 +17
6 Düzcespor 28 12 6 10 32 18 46 +14
7 Karaköprü Belediyespor 28 10 6 12 25 22 42 +3
8 Çatalcaspor 28 9 5 14 39 28 41 +11
9 Silivrispor 28 8 6 14 37 31 38 +6
10 Sultanbeyli Bld. 28 9 8 11 33 27 38 +6
11 Kızılcabölükspor 28 8 8 12 39 37 36 +2
12 Yomraspor 28 9 10 9 28 30 36 -2
13 52 Orduspor FK 28 7 7 14 21 20 35 +1
14 Çankaya FK 28 9 12 7 33 37 34 -4
15 Şile Yıldızspor 28 6 11 11 23 30 29 -7
16 Erzin Spor Kulübü 28 6 12 10 27 34 28 -7
17 Tokatspor 28 1 23 4 16 66 7 -50
18 Manisaspor 28 1 24 3 16 85 0 -69
Tarih Ev Sahibi Sonuç Konuk Takım
 12/04/2020 Başakşehir FK vs Galatasaray
 12/04/2020 Beşiktaş vs Konyaspor
 12/04/2020 Çaykur Rizespor vs Denizlispor
 12/04/2020 Fenerbahçe vs Yeni Malatyaspor
 12/04/2020 Gaziantep FK vs Antalyaspor
 12/04/2020 Gençlerbirliği vs Kasımpaşa
 12/04/2020 Göztepe vs Alanyaspor
 12/04/2020 Sivasspor vs Kayserispor
 12/04/2020 Trabzonspor vs MKE Ankaragücü
 12/04/2020 Başakşehir FK - Galatasaray Galatasaray ligdeki son 10 maçında hiç kaybetmedi  Galatasaray yenilmez
Tarih Ev Sahibi Sonuç Konuk Takım
 16/03/2020 Eskişehirspor 1 - 4 Adana Demirspor
 16/03/2020 Altınordu 1 - 1 Balıkesirspor
 15/03/2020 Osmanlıspor FK 1 - 1 Giresunspor
 15/03/2020 Akhisarspor 0 - 0 BB Erzurumspor
 15/03/2020 Adanaspor 1 - 1 Keçiörengücü
 15/03/2020 Menemenspor 2 - 2 İstanbulspor
 15/03/2020 Hatayspor 2 - 0 Ümraniyespor
 14/03/2020 Bursaspor 1 - 1 Boluspor
 14/03/2020 Fatih Karagümrük 2 - 2 Altay
 12/04/2020 Ümraniyespor - Eskişehirspor Eskişehirspor ligdeki son 7 maçında hiç kazanamadı  Ümraniyespor yenilmez
Tarih Ev Sahibi Sonuç Konuk Takım
 22/03/2020 Elazığspor 0 - 0 Ankara Demirspor
 18/03/2020 Van Spor 2 - 1 Ergene Velimeşe
 15/03/2020 Bodrumspor 0 - 1 Bandırmaspor
 15/03/2020 Kardemir Karabükspor 0 - 1 Niğde Anadolu FK
 15/03/2020 Ergene Velimeşe 0 - 3 Tuzlaspor
 15/03/2020 Van Spor 0 - 1 Sakaryaspor
 15/03/2020 Sivas Belediyespor 0 - 3 Kastamonuspor
 15/03/2020 Kahramanmaraşspor 0 - 1 Kırşehir Belediyespor
 15/03/2020 Uşak Spor 3 - 0 Elazığspor
Tarih Ev Sahibi Sonuç Konuk Takım
 18/03/2020 Artvin Hopaspor 0 - 1 Sultanbeyli Bld.
 18/03/2020 Yomraspor 1 - 0 Serik Belediyespor
 15/03/2020 Kızılcabölükspor 1 - 0 Erzin Spor
 15/03/2020 Manisaspor 0 - 4 68 Aksaray Belediyespor
 15/03/2020 Serik Belediyespor 0 - 0 Düzcespor
 15/03/2020 Sultanbeyli Bld. 2 - 2 Silivrispor
 15/03/2020 Çatalcaspor 1 - 1 24Erzincanspor
 15/03/2020 Tokatspor 1 - 2 1928 Bucaspor
 15/03/2020 Artvin Hopaspor 2 - 1 Çankaya FK
ÇOK OKUNAN HABERLER
  • BUGÜN
  • BU HAFTA
  • BU AY
287 Okunma
202 Okunma
169 Okunma
164 Okunma
114 Okunma
102 Okunma
102 Okunma
94 Okunma
91 Okunma
90 Okunma
83 Okunma
79 Okunma
73 Okunma
70 Okunma
69 Okunma
66 Okunma
66 Okunma
62 Okunma
59 Okunma
58 Okunma
57 Okunma
57 Okunma
56 Okunma
55 Okunma
54 Okunma
54 Okunma
53 Okunma
53 Okunma
53 Okunma
52 Okunma
52 Okunma
2234 Okunma
820 Okunma
482 Okunma
458 Okunma
438 Okunma
430 Okunma
407 Okunma
401 Okunma
396 Okunma
382 Okunma
328 Okunma
299 Okunma
288 Okunma
287 Okunma
287 Okunma
276 Okunma
272 Okunma
261 Okunma
251 Okunma
241 Okunma
235 Okunma
230 Okunma
229 Okunma
219 Okunma
202 Okunma
196 Okunma
184 Okunma
175 Okunma
169 Okunma
166 Okunma
164 Okunma
SON YORUMLANANLAR
  • HABERLER
  • VİDEOLAR
YUKARI YUKARI